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At Lord’s in 1926, Bert Oldfield was out to a ‘beamer’ from Roy Kilner. One report said the ball was above head height, another said it was shoulder height. Oldfield swung wildly and was caught at fine leg. Kilner was a slow bowler and the ball was accidental.
I have embarked on a little project to record the (descriptive) fielding positions of catches in as many Tests as possible. This is only really possible thanks to the wide collection of scores and reports that I have accumulated over the years. So far I have done 1877 to 1928 and also 1957 to 1967. Also most Tests since 1999, using online records. Generally, about 98 per cent of catches can be located in this way; it is a remarkable thing that I can do most of this sitting in my own office/library. The newspaper reports, rather than the scores, are most useful for this purpose.
I hope this will help with more insights into changes in the game.
Certainly one could say a lot about the results, but one example will suffice. I noticed that 'gully' as a catching position was never recorded before 1924. The first mention in a Test was in England in 1924 where it was spelled "gulley" and inverted commas were used. By 1926 it was being used in Australian papers with the modern spelling and no inverted commas.
Searching the digital Times database, there was an isolated use of "gully" in a report of a Gentlemen v Players match in 1910, again with the inverted commas being used. I didn't find anything similar in the Australian Trove from the time. I don't know the derivation of the term. Perhaps others can speculate.
So what terms were used instead? Sometimes the area was part of the slips, but I also find indications that 'point' and 'third man' were broader terms than today and, depending on the writer, extended to what we call the gully. It might help explain how WG Grace took so many catches at 'point', which doesn't attract so many chances today.
Other little observations:
Pre-1915, references to 'cover' or the 'the covers' were rare, almost non-existent, but 'cover-point' was commonly used.
I found a grand total of two catches at longstop, both of them in the 1878-79 Test.
'Midwicket' had not come into common use by 1928. The area, even out to the boundary, was often referred to, rather confusingly, as "short leg". Other terms were used, although it is difficult to unravel.
I found another case of a team scoring 200 runs in a session. At the Oval in 1928 against the West Indies, on the second day England was 235 for 1 when rain interrupted play before lunch. Play re-started at 2:30 and went to 4:55 when England was all out for 438. The rather irregular session produced 203 runs in 145 minutes.
The Fastest Bowlers in the Game: Big Data
Cricinfo stores quite a lot of bowling speed data in attachments to their scorecards. They don’t list the speed of every ball, but they do give averages and peak speeds for every bowler in every innings, for about 90 per cent of recent Tests, taken from automated speed gun readings. While some Tests are missing, this does give allow us a reasonable comparison of bowlers.
I have downloaded all the Test data since early 2014 and distilled it into averages. I don’t know if anyone at Cricinfo has already done this, but it is the sort of thing they should do! The bowlers with the fastest average speeds, since early 2014, are
Minimum 10 innings. These are not precise averages because no allowance has been made for varying length of innings. Some bowlers are affected more than others by missing data, in Tests in Australia in particular.
It would probably be better to be able to calculate median rather than average speeds, as an indicator of ‘typical’ speed, because fast bowlers who use the slower ball more often would have their averages depressed. However, that isn’t possible with the data in this form.
The fastest balls recorded specifically in this dataset were
This data is presented with the caveat that ‘glitches’ are in evidence. Even though Aaron is a very fast bowler, the 100 mph ball has to be dubious. The source is here. Note that Aaron bowled no balls faster than about 92 mph in that innings except for the one ball at 100. This is most likely a measurement error.
Notice also the evident errors in Karn Sharma’s figures in that innings. This is probably due to misidentification of the bowler. This happens fairly regularly in the data.
Another ‘glitch’ evident in the above table is the ball supposedly bowled by Nathan Lyon at over 95 mph.
I still think that the ‘average’ data is useful, but the ‘fastest recorded’ data should be treated with caution and scepticism. Even if only one ball in a thousand is a serious glitch, if you record hundreds of thousands of balls, eventually most of the most extreme records are likely to be glitches. The other trouble with speed guns is that there is no way of independently confirming a result after the event.
Incidentally, the slowest bowler in the data is Shakib al Hasan at an average of 48.4 mph/ 77.9 kph.
Also incidentally, major league baseball currently has a pitcher, Aroldis Chapman, who can pitch at over 105 mph.
Greg Chappell Reality
I happened to see one of Robert ‘Crash’ Craddock’s TV interviews in his fine ‘Cricket Legends’ series, with Greg Chappell. The conversation turned to Chappell’s Test debut, where he made 108 runs at Perth, after coming in with Australia in trouble. Chappell repeated, with absolute conviction, the folklore that Ian Redpath offered to protect Chappell from the bowling of John Snow. There is a quote at the Cricket Country website:
In those 80 minutes before lunch, Chappell actually faced 71 balls to Redpath’s 56. Snow returned after lunch and had four overs, Redpath facing 18 balls to Chappell’s 14. However, Chappell faced 13 balls to Redpath’s 11 in the first three of those overs, with no evidence of strike-farming.
Later, Snow took the new ball. This time Redpath did get more of the strike, but by this time Chappell was on 47 and had been batting more than three hours. I doubt if there was any deliberate strike-shielding going on by then, because Greg hammered 37 runs from 35 balls with the new ball before Snow was replaced. Chappell went from 50 to 100 off 47 balls. The sixth-wicket partnership was eventually worth 219 off 434 balls.
We don't know what speed fast bowlers bowled in the old days, but occasionally there is a hint that they must have bowled at a reasonable clip. In the first Test of 1899, Ernest Jones hit the middle stump of CB Fry and the ball went to the boundary. However, a no ball had been called and so the call was four no balls. How often do you see a ball go to the boundary after hitting middle stump?
I might add, while reading up on this Test, that WG Grace, on his last day in Test cricket took a great one-handed catch at point "just clear of the grass" to a shot from Hill that was "hard, low and square". It was said that Grace retired because the "ground was getting too far away", but it seems he still had the skill. He still has one of the highest ratios of catches per match of any non-keeper.
Incidentally, there is no hint in the newspaper reports that Grace was playing in his last Test. I can't find any mention in The Times of Grace retiring or being dropped, apart from an announcement of the second Test team a few days prior and a comment that the changes were "radical": five changes were made.
Some statistician colleagues related the following accounts of the end of Grace’s career.
“It was not decided until just before the next Test. Fry and Grace were part of the selection committee. According to CB Fry's version, Fry arrived late for the selection committee meeting. As soon as he arrived, Grace asked him whether Archie MacLaren should be part of the team for the second Test. Fry replied in the affirmative.
Only a little
later did Fry realise that Grace was asking him whether he (Grace) should be
replaced by Maclaren.
“The version I heard (can't remember where) was that Grace said to Stanley Jackson after the Trent Bridge match "It's over - I shan't play again." Sounds like he made the decision at that point but chose not to announce it publicly (presumably trusting Jackson not to reveal it), and by asking that question he was effectively allowing Fry to confirm it.”
“A book that I now just checked tells both stories and says that it appears that he was ready to play in the second Test before the Fry incident.”
Grace actually played for MCC and Ground versus the Australians in between the two Tests, and scored 50 and 7 and took 3 for 42.
I think it is interesting that just before the second Test, after the teams were selected, it was announced that the hours of play would be extended by 30 minutes per day.
On his Test debut in 1958, Conrad Hunte scored 50 out of the first 55 runs scored in the match. 142 not out overnight, Hunte was out to the first ball of the second day.
In the England/South Africa Test at Lord’s in 1912, there was no play before lunch on the first day, but South Africa was bowled out for 58 before tea. Barnes and Foster took five wickets each, and were also responsible for all three catches.
There is only one other completed Tests innings where just two players were completely responsible for all the wickets, including catches. At Joburg in 1927, South Africa was bowled out for 196, with George Geary and Greville Stevens sharing the wickets, and the two catches were both taken by Geary.
Possibly the only (former) Test player to die while watching a Test match was former captain Bill Murdoch, who passed away while watching a Test at the MCG in February 1911. Murdoch, who was resident in England, was only visiting Melbourne at the time, and his body was embalmed and taken back to London where he was buried.
I am posting a few interesting images that I have come across, or have been sent. I will link to them rather than insert them here, for memory reasons.
In 1979, Cricketer magazine reported a bowler, Mike Walters, taking eight wickets in eight balls in an Army match. A picture of the scorebook was taken. I have heard claims of bowlers taking nine wickets in nine balls, but Walters’ effort does have the advantage of solid documentary evidence, and it was in an adult match. Children’s cricket records, such as the recent claims of a boy in India scoring a thousand on a tiny field, against opposition that basically didn’t know how to play cricket, are best put in a separate category, and at worst, disregarded. I consider the real innings record outside of first-class cricket to be Charles Eady’s 566 in Tasmania in 1902.
Not long ago I posted a wagon wheel for a Victor Trumper century. Here is another, for Trumper’s 113 at the SCG in 1911-12. This is quite different in style to the earlier one, and is obviously the work of Bill Ferguson. As such, it is the earliest Fergie Wagon Wheel known. The report, which was in the Sydney Morning Herald on 18 Dec 1911 (three days after the event), also includes detailed information on balls faced, in unprecedented detail. Unfortunately, this level of reporting was rarely followed up.
Between about 1895 and 1920, the size of some Australian
grounds was reduced by the installation of a cycling track around the playing
surface. It was in response to the sudden craze for cycling, and due to the
fact that no dedicated cycling venues existed with large spectator capacity.
Here is a picture of a novelty
cycling race at the SCG in 1900, sent to me by Colin Clowes.
Colin also noted adverse comments about the track at the time, such as
For the most part, the tracks were not considered part of the cricket field. However, there was a strange exception. At Adelaide Oval in 1902, Clem Hill, on 98, was caught by a fielder on the cycling track. The dismissal was upheld even though the fielder was outside the normal field of play, and the shot would have been called six had it landed. Shots along the ground were called four on reaching the track, so if the shot had bounced, Hill would have reached his century. Apparently the captains had agreed before the game that such catches would count. The dismissal was part of Hill’s unique sequences of scores of 99, 98, and 97.
The tracks had an effect on scoring, and may have contributed to the “Golden Age” of cricket. Here is the ratio of boundary hits at the SCG: before, during, and after the cycling track…
% Runs as fours and sixes at SCG
Poor Norman O’Neill. In 1958, at age 20, he makes one double century, and immediately he is “hailed as the new Bradman” on the front page of newspapers (in this case the Sun-Herald in Sydney, which I believe was Australia’s largest-selling newspaper at the time). It was an impossible standard to live up to, although O’Neill did enjoy a fine career. Other players burdened with the “next Bradman” sobriquet, include Neil Harvey, Ian Craig and Doug Walters. The fashion eventually wore thin.
Here is an article I wrote, a review of the 2015-16 Australian season, which was published a little belatedly in Between Wickets. I have included an image of the first page of the article as published, since it includes an introduction that I swear I did not write.
In a Test at Sharjah, Kraigg Brathwaite (142*, 60*) remained unbeaten through sixteen consecutive partnerships. This is the most by any player in a single Test, but was matched by Victor Trumper across two Tests in 1903-04. In Trumper's case all sixteen batting partners were dismissed, which is not the case for Brathwaite, although he has a chance to extend his run.
When looking at this, I noticed that in 1903-04 Australia had 35 consecutive partnerships that involved either Trumper or Monty Noble (or both).
Highest first-class scores by a batsman who was involved in only one partnership. I have included opening stands but I think the other cases are more remarkable.
324 Waheed Mirza, Karachi Whites v Quetta 1977 (partnership 561 for 1st wicket with Mansoor Akhtar)
319 RR Rossouw, Eagles v Titans 2010 (480 for 2nd wicket with D Elgar)
319 Gul Mohammad, Baroda v Holkar 1947 (577 for 4th wicket with V Hazare)
313 H Sutcliffe, Yorkshire v Essex 1932 (555 for 1st wicket with P Holmes)
300 DCS Compton, MCC v NE Transvaal 1948 (399 for 3rd wicket with RT Simpson)
293 VT Trumper, Australians v Canterbury 1914 (433 for 8th wicket with A Sims)
290 WN Carson, Auckland v Otago 1936 (445 in 268 mins for 3rd wicket with PE Whitelaw)
289 Aamer Sajjad, WPDA v SSGC 2009 (580 for 2nd wicket with Rafatullah Mohmand
Aaron Finch scored 288* for Cricket Australia XI v New Zealanders 2015 in a farcical match that was abandoned after the first wicket fell.
An unusual run out from the distant past: at Cape Town 1891/92, Harry Wood hit a two to go from 98 to 100. They went for a third run and JJ Ferris was run out by ‘Flooi’ Du Toit.
Wood was the first starting wicketkeeper to score a Test century.
At Port of Spain in 2000, Chris Gayle took wickets with the last two balls of Zimbabwe's innings, and in West Indies first over, wickets fell with consecutive balls, including Gayle, out first ball. So that is a strange twist on the concept of a hat-trick. Gayle, as it happened, did not get a bowl in the second innings and so was denied an opportunity for a hat-trick. That, in itself, must be rare.
At the Wanderers in 1966, HR Lance
was out hit wicket to Graham McKenzie even though he did not offer a shot –
he somehow stepped back onto his stumps.
David Lloyd is the only batsman to
start his Test career with three century partnerships. The most in a row by
any batsman is five, shared by Mike Denness, Graham
Gooch, Ricky Ponting and David Warner; in each case it was across multiple
Tests. Warner did it in the first two Tests against New Zealand last season,
something I had missed when it happened.
At Madras in 1967, V Subramanya reached 51 with ten fours and a six, in an innings of 61 (11x4, 1x6). While that 46 runs in a half-century has been match or exceeded quite a number of times since, it has only one precedent, that being Reggie Spooner at The Oval in 1905. I will update the relevant section in the Records.
Head to Head Against the Best
Quite a few years ago, on this very blog (which has been running for a disturbingly long time), I remarked that a head-to-head, batsmen v bowler, analysis would be quite interesting if we just looked at superior batsmen; that is, how do the top bowlers compare when they are bowling to the top batsmen, with averages over 45?
Back then, I found that Glenn McGrath was well ahead of any of his contemporaries. Now I have much more data, and we can do some historical comparison.
I simply calculated the head-to-head figures for all bowlers when they were bowling to batsmen whose career averages are over 45. Here is the table
Qualification: 40 dismissals of top-ranked batsmen, or 1500 runs (50 dismissals for current players).
I should explain that entries in italics included some estimated data, because I don’t have all Tests ball-by-ball. This is not as bad as it seems; in most cases where estimates are included, a large majority of the data for that bowler is known exactly, and the estimates form a minority component. There are no pre-1920 bowlers because almost no batsmen averaged over 45 in those days.
Readers may make of this list what they will. Obviously pace bowlers are dominant, with Bill O’Reilly the top-ranked spinner. The truth is that wickets for almost all spinners are weighted towards the tail end, and even the best spinners were often hammered by the best batsmen. Brian Lara averaged over 100 against the combined bowling of Murali, Warne, Danish Kaneria and MacGill, but only 27 off McGrath.
I suppose that pace bowlers have one advantage in that when top-order batsmen fail, it is sometimes before the spinners come on. I wouldn’t think that this was an overwhelming factor though.
The figures do confirm my impression that Glenn McGrath was the most difficult bowler of the modern era. While Shane Warne was acclaimed the “Bowler of the Century” by Wisden, I am not even sure he was the best bowler in his team.
Warne, incidentally, is 33rd of 81 bowlers on the list with an average of 45.3. I won’t dwell on the bottom of the table except to say that John Emburey has the highest average of those that qualify, at 98.0.
It did occur to me that in different eras, bowlers will bowl to different sets of top batsmen. So I normalised the averages so that instead of treating all 45+ batsmen equally, bowlers were rewarded more for dismissing the very best batsmen. (A career batting average of 45 has no adjustment, 50 has some adjustment, while bowling to Bradman gets a big adjustment). The adjusted averages are below; not much different but some changes occur.
This analysis lifts Alec Bedser and Hedley Verity, the reason being that they bowled to Bradman, and enjoy the greatest beneficial adjustment as a result. Verity had the best record of any bowler against Bradman, with eight dismissals and an average of 49.8.
Here's a nice little find that pleases me. I have a section in my records of bowlers who took five wickets in fewest balls, also the subject of a recent question in Ask Steven. The record is 12 balls by Kallis, or, if we ignore Bangladesh, 13 balls by Laker in THAT Test. There was one uncertain one that is a candidate: at Melbourne in 1901/02, Monty Noble took the last five wickets of his 7/17 very rapidly, but I was unable to get an exact number, in spite of checking numerous newspapers.
Anyway, I have found an account in a newspaper called the Port Phillip Herald that settles the matter. Noble took wickets with the last two balls of his sixth over, another in his seventh, then two more in four balls to finish the innings. That is five wickets in twelve balls, a match for Kallis. The sequence was
W, W, 0, 0, 2, W, 0, 0, 0, W, 4, W
Only once has every player in a Test team made more than 20 runs in the match. That was New Zealand at Johannesburg in 1994, where the minimum of 25 runs was shared by the two openers.
The England team at Bombay in 1964 had only 11 fit players available, the other players in the touring team being injured or ill. Shortly after the match began, Micky Stewart also fell ill, leaving the team with ten players. On the first day, AG Kripal Singh of India filled in as a substitute fielder for England; on the second day, Hanumant Singh did the duty. Neither received any chances.
Georgetown 1965: Garry Sobers, batting at #6, gave opener Conrad Hunte a 46-over head start, but overtook Hunte’s score in 10 overs. At that point, Hunte was out for 38 off 160 balls, with Sobers then on 39; Sobers was out shortly afterwards for 42 off 56 balls.
On the second day of the Edgbaston Test of 1965 (Eng v NZ) the maximum temperature in Birmingham was 9° C. Hot drinks were brought out to the players during drinks breaks.
Most wickets in a session for one team: at Manchester in 1888, Australia lost 18 wickets during the third morning session, going from 32/2 to 81 all out, and 70 all out following on. There were about 2 hours of play. The match was over at that point, and I believe there was no lunch break.
In more modern times, Pakistan lost 11 wickets in the final session of the third day at Lord's in 2010. At Mumbai in 2004, there were 14 wickets in a very long final session of the match, four from India, and all 10 from Australia (93 all out).
Update on the subject of teams appealing against too much light (see August 25)…
Sreeram tells me of a case in Women’s Tests, at Collinhgam 1986, where the Indian (fielding) team refused to continue due to light reflecting off car windscreens (which didn’t trouble the batters). In fact, they sat on the pitch until all the cars had been moved. England was chasing a target on the last day, and the over rate from the Indian team seems to have fallen to unprecedented low levels. Reports say that, at one point, seven or eight overs were bowled in an hour. This is slower, by some margin, than any over rate that I have recorded in men’s Tests.
Here’s a link to an article of mine that has been published on the Cricket Monthly website. I will also post it in my Longer Articles page I hope you like it as much as some of the people who posted comments. I certainly enjoyed reading them!
While I have it in mind, I will add the following note:
The overall average ‘cost’ of dropped catches is similar to the overall batting average, at around 33 runs.
I suppose one way to evaluate a keeper in a match is to tally the total number of chances he receives. Then calculate how many of these an ‘average’ keeper would be expected to drop. Take the difference between this and the actual number of drops, multiply by 33, and you have a runs value for the keeper’s catching.
Say that a keeper received 8 catching chances in a match, and catches 5. The average keeper would be expected to drop 15%; that is, 1.2 catches. Our keeper has dropped 3, so he has an excess of 1.8. At 33 runs per drop, our keeper has cost the team about 60 runs.
By the same calculation, a keeper who received 8 chances, and catches them all, has gained his team an advantage of about 40 runs.
Stumpings would be calculated separately. One might also do separate calculations for pace and spin bowling, since these have very different drop rates for keepers. This would require ball-by-ball records.
Of course, you can add in other factors, such as the value of the batsmen dismissed. This can create difficulties, because there are many possible factors. When you use lots of factors, the final result becomes rather arbitrary, depending on the weight you place on each factor.
With the help of Sreeram and others, I have made a list of batsmen who have batted, in effect, with one hand, due a broken bone or other serious injury.
LH Tennyson, Leeds 1921
RT Simpson, Leeds 1953
JT Murray, Sydney 1962-63
MC Cowdrey, Lord's 1963 (did not face)
MD Marshall, Edgbaston 1984
VP Terry, Old Trafford 1984
Salim Malik, Faisalabad 1986-87
A Ranatunga, Rawalpindi 1999-00
GC Smith, Sydney 2008-09
Wahab Riaz, Colombo PSS 2015
UPDATE: J Srinath, Mumbai 2001 (2nd innings) (H/T Abhishek)
Talat Ali, Adelaide 1972-73
Nick Knight batted one-handed in an ODI in 1997 (Auckland)
Inzamam-ul-Haq 1st Test Harare 1994-95
The extent to which Simpson was playing one-handed is uncertain. In the same series, there is a picture of Len Hutton hitting a one-handed shot at Lord’s. The puzzle here is that Hutton scored 145, and “gave full rein to his shots” according to The Times, which, although it mentions an injury (suffered while fielding), does not mention Hutton batting one-handed.
Malik batted both left-handed and right-handed during his innings, perhaps the only batsman to do so in Tests. Cowdrey was prepared to do so, but did not face. Terry was probably the most seriously injured of these players; he is the only one on the list to bat with his arm in a sling, in what was his last Test innings.
The fastest century makers. These are the batsmen with fastest average balls faced to 100. (First 100 runs mind you, not whole innings). With a minimum of 10 Test centuries, the Top Five are Gilchrist (107 balls), Warner (116), Sehwag (119), McCullum (122), and Pietersen (139). Jayasuriya and Botham are very close to Pietersen on 139.
They are followed by Dilshan (141), Gayle (143), Clive Lloyd (147), Viv Richards (148) and Lara (150)
At 5-9 centuries there is also Afridi (104), Kapil Dev (108), with Cairns and Prior on 125.
With no minimum, there is Gilbert Jessop, whose only century was reached in 76 balls.
The most runs in a calendar year is 5200 by Martin Crowe in 1987 (first-class + List A). Jimmy Cook scored 14,167 runs in three consecutive years, 1989-1991. It might surprise people to learn that such players were playing more cricket 30 years ago than our supposedly 'overloaded' players do today.
The most in first-class alone is 4962 by Denis Compton in 1947. Compton scored 5476 runs between October 1946 and September 1947.
It will be difficult to exceed these totals because the effect of T20 cricket has been to depress the number of runs scored and wickets taken, not increase them. Last time I checked, the most runs in a year that included T20 games was 3788 by JA Rudolph in 2010, so Kohli may beat that.
Charles Turner took 365 first-class wickets in calendar year 1888. I don’t think this has been surpassed in f-c, or in combined formats.
The highest partnerships equally shared…
At Headingley in 1993,the fifth wicket stand between Steve Waugh and Allan Border added 332 (unbeaten) with each scoring 157 runs. There were 18 sundries.
At Adelaide Oval in 1977, Graham Yallop and Peter Toohey shared a partnership of 120 in which each scored exactly 60 runs, with no sundries.
A One-Day International at the Gabba on 9 Jan 1993 was completed and all over at 12:30
pm. After an unusually early starting time of 9:00 am, Pakistan was bowled
out in 116 minutes for 71. The innings break was only 10 minutes and West
Indies chased down the runs in 84 minutes (19.2 overs).
Would this be the earliest finish (in time of day) to an international cricket match?
UPDATE: Sreeram reports “The Sri Lanka v Zimbabwe match on December 8, 2001 lasted 108 minutes and was over 'by mid-day'. So it probably ended at 11.48 am.”
At the SCG in 1963, Fred Trueman hit Richie Benaud for six and immediately appealed against the light. The appeal was turned down and Trueman then hit Benaud for two fours (one of which would be a six with modern boundary ropes) to take 14 off the over.
There is an update to the HOT 100 list, the fastest and slowest batsmen in Test cricket. I only update this annually now, since scoring speed is a relatively constant characteristic of batsmen, and less variable than batting average. The lists change only slowly, although David Warner has crept up a place into 5th. Brendon McCullum also moved up, just before his retirement, thanks in part to his extraordinary 145 off 79 balls at Christchurch.
I spent a little time last week in the National Library in Canberra copying some early ODI scores that they have (the Library obtained them from the MCC), including the original ODI in January 1971.
There was a curiosity with that 1971 score. The original team names were given as "An Australian XI" v "M.C.C.". These names had been crossed out and replaced with "Australia" and "England". Next to these changes is a scrawled note which is a little difficult to read…
"(Title of match [revised, or request] by Sir Donald Bradman and Sir Cyril Hawker)"
The match was scored by Geoffrey Saulez and R.W. Bright.
There certainly was some confusion at the time as to the category of the match, and it certainly indicates that the idea of a "One Day International" came later. Initial newspaper reports of the match did not know quite what to call it; the odd phrase "knockout match" was used. Wisden mostly ignored the match, giving it just a two-line potted score and no match report.
One-Day cricket was known in Australia at the time, having started in 1969-70. However, it might have been the first such game for some of the players.
I had to look up who Sir Cyril Hawker was: he was President of the MCC at the time. Although he had played one f-c match, his main background was as a banker (Governor of the bank of England, in fact).
A Trumper Wagon Wheel
I also found a wagon wheel of a major Trumper innings, his 166 in the final Test of 1907-08. I haven’t seen such a thing for a Trumper innings before.
Most striking is the lack of runs through cover and around to third man. Trumper favoured the straight hit or scored on the leg side. I would think that what is called “short leg” includes longer hits to mid-wicket.
There are a few cases of bowlers losing grip and mis-delivering the ball, and the batsmen have claimed right to hit the ball anyway, wherever it ended up. This is no longer allowed – umpires nowadays are directed to call dead ball, although I don’t quite know why that Law is necessary – but it has happened historically. Here are a few examples in Tests, where the ball was hit to the boundary. (Thanks to Brodibb’s Next Man In, Ashru, and others.)
· The winning runs at Lord’s 1921 were hit by Warren Bardsley off Jack Durston, from a ball that stopped halfway up the pitch.
· Delhi 1969: a ball by Sobroto Guha fell from his hand and rolled toward square leg. Encouraged by Bill Lawry, Keith Stackpole walked out and hit it for four.
· Faisalabad 1982: a delivery from Abdul Qadir dropped out of his hand. Greg Ritchie claimed it and hit it for four.
· Old Trafford 1999: A ball from Phil Tufnell bounced away towards square leg. Craig McMillan ran out and hit it to the boundary, but it was called dead ball.
In an ODI at Cuttack in 2003, McMillan tried this again of the bowling of Karthik, but he mishit the ball and was almost run out – or he might have been except that the umpire was calling dead ball.
At Old Trafford 1935, a ball from Vincent rolled to a stop before it reached batsman Hammond. Hammond appeared to want to go out and hit the ball, but with fielders hurrying toward the ball, he retreated to his crease.
UPDATE: Wellington 1990, a ball from Danny Morrison slipped and rolled to square leg. Alan Border claimed it, walked over and hit it to the boundary, with Morrison standing a few yards away.
In an ODI at Harare in 1992, Ken
Rutherford played an innings of 37 that consisted of a six and 31 singles.
Few cricket fans imagine that they could be successful at Test cricket, but there are millions of people out there who see themselves as better at selecting Test teams than the people who have the job. The cutting below shows that this has been the case for many generations. It is from a Test in 1901/02 and mentions the heavy fire that faced selectors who had named Reggie Duff and Warwick Armstrong in the Australian team.
But sometimes it is the selectors who get it right. Duff top-scored in both innings in what was his Test debut, while Armstrong scored 4* and 45*.
I came across this while trying to nail down the number of balls bowled by Monty Noble in taking his last five wickets in the first innings in that Test. The record for fewest balls bowled is 12 by Jacques Kallis, although that was against Bangladesh; in a proper Test match it is 13 balls by Jim Laker. This was probably matched by Noble, but I am still unable to come up with an exact figure. It could be as low as 12, or as high as 14.
No bowler spent more time bowling to the famed ‘Three Ws’ than Jim Laker, whose encounters with the West Indies’ greats spanned almost a decade. The curious thing is that while Weekes and Worrell both tamed Laker’s spin thoroughly, Walcott had nothing but trouble.
The innings count is only those innings in which Laker actually bowled to the batsman. Laker at one stage dismissed Walcott in nine consecutive innings in which he bowled to him (there were one or two other innings in between where Walcott did not face Laker). This is the most for any head-to-head pair in the database.
Most international runs in a 365-day period. Dates are “365 days ending”, not calendar years. Combined totals for Tests, ODIs and T20is.
A curiosity that I came across on the subject of long-distance cricket travel. Garfield Sobers played in a Sheffield Shield match in Adelaide that ended on 13 Feb 1962, but also played in a Test in Trinidad starting on 16 Feb 1962. In between, he made a 55-hour flight on three airlines, covering 12,600 miles and arriving in the middle of the night of the first morning of the Test. Without the time difference, he would not have made it. The final drive to the cricket ground was an additional two hours.
From Adelaide, the West Indies is one of the most distant places to travel to by air. That is true to this day.
Nowadays our ‘overloaded’ players expect longer breaks than this between T20 games at the same ground.
In the two matches, Sobers scored a combined total 293 runs and took 15 wickets. The guy was unbelievable. In the Shield match, he scored 2 and 251, and took 3/51 and 6/72.
Everton Weekes was once selected to play for West Indies (Kingston 1948), after he was previously told he had been dropped, but word got to him so late that he couldn't make it to the ground on time, and actually saw play in progress from the air as he flew in.
Blinded by the Light…The ToSH Facebook group has collected a few cases, in Tests, of play being stopped by excessive light or glare.
· Johannesburg 1896: the final day was interrupted for 30 minutes by "glare from a conservatory”.
· England v New Zealand, Christchurch 1962/3, interrupted by evening sunlight reflecting off a roof. It ended play 11 minutes early on the third day. Barrington appealed against the 'light', literally. "...extraordinary glare of the evening sun on the aluminium roof of the grandstand behind the wicket."
· England vs West Indies, Manchester 1995, first day; the cause of the glare was a row of greenhouses adjacent to the ground. Tea was taken 21 minutes early, but no net time was lost.
· Pakistan v New Zealand, Rawalpindi, 1996-97: the opening day saw several hold-ups. One was caused by sunlight dazzling the batsmen after tea.
UPDATED (see October 24 2016).
A figure for most runs conceded before first wicket in ODIs has become available, thanks to the unearthing (by Ross Dundas) of a scoresheet. Asif Mujtaba took his first ODI wickets (2 for 38) at the MCG in January 1993, in his 18th ODI. The first wicket was taken after he had conceded 17 runs, bringing his total to 292 runs. It was his 291st ball in ODIs, and the 12th time he had bowled.
Ata-ur-Rehman bowled at least 51 overs before his first wicket, which is the probable record in terms of balls bowled. The exact number is still not available.
The project to upload detailed scores of all Tests from the 1950s has been completed, and the database now covers all Tests from 1920 to early 1960. I hope to post more in the future, starting with pre-1920 Tests, but there is no schedule at the moment.
A couple of new discoveries…
I visited Headingley more than a decade ago, and went through all their scorebooks, and copied all the Test matches that I could find. Time was limited, and unfortunately I failed to fully copy the 1912 and 1965 Tests. I was unable to find the 1957 Test and the 1952 Test in the time available.
A problem was that most of the Tests were in scorebooks other than the year in question. This was because the main county scorebook travelled with the Yorkshire team, and Yorkshire played away while Headingley Test matches were on. Most Test scores that I found were either in a Second XI book or in a First XI book for a different year. There was no telling where a Test score would turn up, so I had to leaf through every page of every book to find them.
Since then, the scorebooks have been donated to the West Yorkshire Archive Service. After a bit of correspondence with them, they searched the books again and found all the missing material. Well done! They have supplied me with copies, and I have re-scored them into digital form. The 1952 and 1957 Tests have now been posted in my Online Database.
All Tests ever played at Headingley are now represented by scorebooks or ball-by-ball records, and have been re-scored. Going back to 1899, this is the longest and most complete record for any major Test match ground (although the 1902 match at Sheffield has unfortunately not been found). Lord’s goes back to 1921, and Sydney to 1910; in both cases earlier records exist, but there are gaps. Other major grounds have more recent gaps (Perth is complete, but only started in 1970).
The most recent Test in England that has no scorebook is now The Oval 1951 (v South Africa). The other post-War Tests in England that are missing are The Oval 1946 and 1949, and Trent Bridge 1947.
This is a bit of a departure, but I thought I would post a newspaper article unearthed by John Kobylecky, concerning an extraordinary incident during the M.C.C. tour of Pakistan in 1955-56. This tour, perhaps unfortunately, is not regarded as an official Test tour, although the major matches were very much regarded as Tests in Pakistan itself. The attitude of the M.C.C. to these matches is a strange contrast to the Tests in India of 1951-52, which have official status, even though that M.C.C. team was also far from representative.
In any case, the article describes the mistreatment of one of the umpires, by English players including the captain, on the rest day of the 3rd ‘Test’ in faraway Peshawar in January 1956. Although there was an attempt to excuse the behaviour as university-style ‘ragging’, it sounds awful. It best, gross cultural insensitivity, at worst, inexcusable assault.
The incident was reported in The Times, but only in brief outline. Some readers may already be aware of it, but I had not heard about it before, so it might be new to others.
Andy Roberts bowled three hat-trick balls at Manchester in 1976, one in the first innings and two in the second. He is the only one on record to do so in one Test. A catch was dropped off the third hat-trick ball.
At Ahmedabad in 1996/97, J Srinath took wickets with consecutive balls three times in one innings, but the third instance involved the last two wickets in the match, so he only bowled two hat-trick balls.
Sreeram reports a weird case of three wickets in three balls…
“The Durban 1969/70 Test ended with Procter getting Gleeson and Connolly in consecutive balls. When Test cricket resumed there in 1992/93. Kapil Dev took a wicket with the first ball. This is a weird definition of a hat-trick in a particular ground…?”
The Galle Test saw all 40 wickets fall and finished after 44.1 overs on the third day. This was the earliest finish for a 40-wicket Test in the last 100 years. There are a couple of 40-wicket Tests that had fewer overs overall, but they finished later on the third day.
A few 40-wicket Tests, including the original Ashes Test in 1882, finished in 2 days, but they were very long ago. The last to finish earlier than Galle was the Headingley Test of 1912 (Eng v SA), which finished after 12 overs on day 3.
More recently there was Mumbai 2004/05. The match lasted 202 overs, less than the 215 at Galle, but there were 96 overs on the third day, due to earlier interruptions.
In the Kandy Test, Mitchell Starc took five wickets on the first day and the same again on the second. I don't have this one fully up to date, but the only other instance in the last 100 years that I can find is Mohammad Asif at Kandy in 2006
It’s been reported in many places, but Peter Nevill and Steve O’Keefe, assisted by Josh Hazlewood, smashed all previous records for scorelessness, by stringing together 154 balls without a run in the Kandy Test. While plenty of teams have been in ultra-defensive situations like this before, this was a unique combination of circumstances. There were no specialist batsmen so no attempt to farm the strike. One batsman was injured and so no running was attempted. I think that if there had been a runner for O’Keefe, occasional runs would have been taken, so it is all due in part to the strange rule that disallows use of runners.
Nevill faced 90 balls without scoring, just shy of the 95 by Bruce Mitchell in 1931. The number for Mitchell, unfortunately, is only an estimate; however, I would say that, at the low end, it is a fairly precise estimate, but the exact number is not known (could be a bit higher). It is quite unlikely that Mitchell faced 90 balls or less. However, Nevill batted 108 minutes without scoring, and that is without doubt the longest time without scoring in a Test innings.
In the next Test, at Galle, Nevill was out first ball in the first innings and scored off his second ball when he batted again. This gave him a total of 92 consecutive balls without scoring. So Tony Lock’s record of 115 balls across multiple innings remains safe. O’Keefe, for his part, has an open-ended sequence of 76 balls without scoring to continue. Hope he gets the chance.
The Unusual Records entry has been updated.
Here are the fourth-innings scores at each fall of wicket, closest to the target, by teams losing the Test match.
Most of these records were set in the original Ashes Test of 1882, but Manchester 1902 and a couple of others also turn up
15/1 (70 runs: target 85) Eng v Aus, The Oval 1882
68/2 (56 runs: target 124) Eng v Aus, Manchester 1902
51/3 (34 runs: target 85) Eng v Aus, The Oval 1882
53/4 (32 runs: target 85) Eng v Aus, The Oval 1882
92/4 (32 runs: target 124) Eng v Aus, Manchester 1902
66/5 (19 runs: target 85) Eng v Aus, The Oval 1882
70/6 (15 runs: target 85) Eng v Aus, The Oval 1882
70/7 (15 runs: target 85) Eng v Aus, The Oval 1882
109/7 (15 runs: target 124) Eng v Aus, Manchester 1902
75/8 (10 runs: target 85) Eng v Aus, The Oval 1882
110/9 (7 runs: target 117) Aus v SAf, Sydney (SCG) 1993/94
184/10 (2 runs: target 186) Aus v WI, Adelaide 1992/93
The Tied Test in Brisbane would beat some of these if you want to include it
226/7 (7 runs: target 233) Aus v WI, Brisbane 1960/61
228/8 (5 runs: target 233) Aus v WI, Brisbane 1960/61
232/9 (1 run: target 233) Aus v WI, Brisbane 1960/61
232/10 (1 run: target 233) Aus v WI, Brisbane 1960/61
I have been studying some old ODI scores, and have come up with some interesting material on Simon O’Donnell, one of the more underrated ODI players.
Bowlers taking wickets in five consecutive overs in an ODI (where known)
Also in 1990, O’Donnell played an innings of 74 off 29 balls in an ODI at Sharjah against Sri Lanka. At the time, his 50 off 18 balls was an ODI record. The innings, as recorded on the scoresheet, makes unusual reading
O’Donnell actually scored his 74 runs in the space of 26 balls, without a dot ball. In that innings, runs were scored off the bat by the Australians for 43 consecutive balls, with the exception of the ball that took O’Donnell’s wicket.
Only Sanath Jayasyuriya (76 off 28 in 1996, setting a new record with 50 off 17) and Brendon McCullum (using a super bat) have played higher innings off fewer balls than O’Donnell.
Against Zimbabwe in 2012, McCullum (119) scored off 30 consecutive balls faced, as did Ian Trott (112) against New Zealand in 2013. Neither scored as many runs as O’Donnell without facing a dot ball, but Chris Gayle (215) equalled it with 74, scoring off 23 consecutive balls without a dot ball against Zimbabwe in last year’s World Cup. (For this analysis, sundries are considered dot balls.)
O’Donnell, incidentally, hit the longest six ever accurately recorded at the MCG. It was in a Sheffield Shield match in 1993, off the bowling of Greg Matthews. The shot reached the third level (out of four) of the Great Southern Stand. The location has been marked by a yellow-coloured seat that can even be seen on Google Earth. The distance is equivalent to 122 metres (unimpeded).
Shoaib Mailk scored 53* off 61 balls in 2006, but his first 50 is not recorded.
There have been a few innings of similar length that did not reach 50 runs, the most extreme was Naeem Islam in 2010
Aslam Siddiqui reports:
PN Weekes probably faced more than 60 balls in this match.
There have been a number of innings of similar length in T20 cricket that have not reached 50, including a 35 off 63 balls by Lategan again…
During the record-breaking partnership of May and Cowdrey in 1957 (411 off 1146 balls), the West Indies took a second new ball after 96 overs. It would appear that no further new balls were taken after this, even though the innings lasted 258 overs. The 162 overs would appear to be the most overs without a new ball after a second ball was taken (where known). A list of the longest spells without a new ball is here.
Dropped Catches Report for 2015
I have collated a list of dropped catches in Tests in 2015 (specifically, April 2015 to January 2016, between pauses for World Cup and World T20). This extends my analysis of Cricinfo ball-by-ball texts that started in 2001. For a number of Tests, I backed up the analysis by also checking the texts archived by Cricbuzz. In general, this confirmed the searches of Cricinfo, but a few other missed chances were found. It is also apparent that some dropped catches are a matter of opinion, with the sources coming to conflicting conclusions where ‘technical’ or ‘half’ chances are concerned; also whether or not balls carried or missed the bat. The disputed or uncertain cases might amount to about five to ten per cent of missed chances. As such, most chances are clear-cut, but the totals are a little fuzzy, and should be interpreted with that caveat.
In 45 Tests I found 281 missed chances (including stumpings but not run outs). Taking the successful catches and stumpings into account, the miss rate was 23.8%. Overall, there is a downward trend in this figure over the years, suggesting gradual improvement in catching. However, it is not quite as low as the 23.2% recorded in 2012.
More surprising is the improvement apparent compared to the rate of 27.2% in 2014. Some of the changes can be seen in this summary table
% Missed Chances in Tests
While the incidence of dropped catches appears to be falling, the high figure for 2014 remains a bit odd. Part of this is due to Bangladesh playing more Tests in that year: Bangladesh drops a lot of catches and bumps up the average, but even with them, the rate was still elevated. For reasons unknown, Australia dropped more chances in 2014 than in the previous or following years. I have checked the results with some care, but it seems to be a real result.
The team results for 2015 are as follows
I would disregard Bangladesh in this list, because they played only five Tests and took only 25 catches during the year, a very small sample size. Bangladesh had a drop rate of 34% in the previous year. The most striking result is Sri Lanka, whose catching has improved enormously in the last few years, from 34% dropped in 2013 and 29% in 2014 to 21% last year. I have looked through the Sri Lanka results carefully, using both Cricinfo and Cricbuzz, and the result seems to be genuine.
Adam Voges’ 269* at Hobart appears to have been chanceless. The highest score in 2015 by a batsman dropped was 290 Ross Taylor at Perth, dropped on 137. The most ‘expensive’ drop of the year was 165 runs for Steve Smith at Lord’s, dropped on 50 and went on to make 215. The only batsman dropped on 0 who went on to make a century was Joe Root, dropped second ball in his ashes-critical 134 at Cardiff.
Zulfiqar Babar was the most unfortunate bowler in 2015, with 17 catches missed off his bowling. Azhar Ali dropped nine chances, mostly at the difficult short leg and silly point positions, five of them off Zulfiqar.
The dropped catches report for 2014 is here.
Notes on the earliest international tours to use air transport…
The 1945-46 Australian team flew to New Zealand: "At dawn on 26 February 1946 the team flew from Sydney. The New Zealand Air Force provided a Catalina for the long flight across the Tasman Sea." They returned on the 8th of April, again with the NZ Air Force out of Auckland, but this time in a DC3.
The flight over took eight hours (Catalinas flew at less than 200kph), and the flight back on the (somewhat faster) DC3 was eventful, with the plane turning back to New Zealand after a short time due to an oil pressure problem, but completing the flight successfully later on the same day.
There is an odd aspect to this: regular commercial flights between Sydney and Auckland were available at the time, so why did the team fly on specially organised NZAF planes? At the time, an airline called T.E.A.L., the predecessor of Air New Zealand, had three flights a week on flying boats, and in fact had operated them even during the war.
I wonder if it was at the insistence of the Australian Cricket Board, getting the New Zealanders to pay?
The day they got back also happened to be the day that flights from Australia to Britain via Singapore resumed, using civilian versions of wartime bombers (Liberators and Lancasters). These were the first civilian planes to use the Changi airport that had been built by PoWs. Earlier post-War flights had taken a route via Colombo, which required a very long trans-ocean leg.
The 1946 Indian team to England and the 1947/48 team to Australia both travelled by air. The latter had a rather long and harrowing flight, and decided that the return trip would be by sea.
In 1947/48, Len Hutton flew out to the West Indies as a replacement player for the MCC. It took him 3 days to get from London to Georgetown.
Information from the fascinating "Test Cricket Tours" website.
Ashru Mishra reports that a Lancashire team flew from Cardiff to Southampton in 1935, on a privately organised flight.
The last tour to travel by ship was the 1964 Ashes tour, although the sea leg was limited to Perth-Colombo. The team returned to Australia by air, playing Tests in Pakistan and India.
(Thanks also to Ashru and Sreeram.)
Here is an article of mine that was published in Cricket Monthly, on the subject of the longest sixes:
and here’s an interview I did for Cricket Country, which was actually a written Q&A rather than spoken interview.
In both of the
above, the headlines and photo captions were not written by me. Nor was the
introductory blurb in the interview, which I do not necessarily agree with.
The interviewer seemed to think that I had “proved” that Bradman had averaged
100, but I tried to hose that down in my comments.
Also, there is some doubt about batting orders in many very old games. For example, G Beldam is given 31* out of 63 batting at #11 in 1800, but I doubt if he really batted in that position. I think that some very old scorecards list batsmen in the order they were out, not the order they came in.
Given the age of many of these records, the recent one by Glenn Maxwell is remarkable. He came to the crease at 9 (runs) for 6 (wickets) and scored 127 off 102 balls.
The highest for a #12 batsman is 13 out of 44 by TC Elliot for Hampshire v All England in 1848.
Note also WG in 1876
1 79.2% WG Grace
126 out of 159 United North of England v United South of England, Hull 1876
Here's an odd little stat
Q. In the last one thousand ODIs, how many times has the team batting second hit the last ball of the 50th over for four?
The last one I can find is Zimbabwe v Pakistan at Multan in 2008.
Since then there have been six matches where the second team hit the last ball of the 50th over for six (including the recent tie) and even one case of a five, but no fours.
There was a match where Kevin Pietersen hit the last ball for four, but that was a Duckworth-Lewis match, and not the 50th over.
Another odd fact: add it to the list
of records held by the very first Test of 1877.
Other countries, of course, have had
Here’s a list of the fastest batsmen to reach major Test milestones. “Fastest” in this context means fewest balls faced, not matches or innings or time. The “Balls Faced” in the table is the exact number when the milestone was reached, in mid-innings. For example, Southee passed one thousand runs during his 61st innings, and finished that innings with 1009 runs off 1180 balls. His one thousandth run came off his 1167th ball.
The leader in each category is quite clear cut, except at 9,000 runs, where Graeme Smith and Brian Lara are extremely close. Tendulkar, of course, is alone in the last two categories.
All these players are relatively recent. Although some data is missing for earlier players, none of them are contenders for a place in this table, so even with complete data this table would not change. Chances are though, that Gilbert Jessop (1899-1912) would be the faster than any modern batsman to 500 runs (about 450 balls), but Jessop never made it to 1000.
After a question on AskSteven, I became curious about the story that Bill Woodfull refused a knighthood offered to him for his contribution to cricket. Being of sceptical mind, I looked into it.
The earliest published source for this seems to be Chris Harte’s History of Australian Cricket (1993, p357). Hart says the offer came on the occasion of Woodfull’s farewell match in November 1934. Harte even quotes (after a fashion) from a “citation”. However, there is no reference offered and no direction to any primary source.
The story is also absent from all other older sources, including Pollard’s books, The Oxford Companion to Australian Cricket and Robinson’s much-admired On Top Down Under, which has a detailed chapter on Woodfull.
Still sceptical, I borrowed a copy of a Woodfull biography by Alan Gregory, published recently (2011). However, Gregory does confirm the story, saying that he checked it with Woodfull’s son and daughter, who had heard it from their mother.
So perhaps we should accept that at face value. Yet it is still a stretch. Gregory also reports that John Dew attempted (“energetically”) to get confirmation from both Buckingham Palace and Government House (Melbourne, the supposed source of the offer), but none was forthcoming. There are therefore still no documents or primary evidence.
Having done some family research in my time, I would certainly say that some stories that get circulated by word of mouth around families, and repeated decades later, are not necessarily true! (No disrespect intended). Others have a kernel of truth, but get exaggerated over the years. Casual chatter at an official function, perhaps?
I still wonder about other factors. In 1934, no senior player, not even WG Grace, had ever been knighted for services to cricket; that fashion lay well into the future. There is another element to the story – that Woodfull responded that he would have instead accepted a knighthood for his teaching – and this also has an odd ring. He was just 37 at the time, he had spent a good part of his adult life playing cricket, and he was not a senior teacher yet; it also doesn’t sound in character. Gregory mentions that no Australian teacher had ever received a knighthood at that time either; I think Woodfull’s claimed statement sounds very unrealistic.
Gregory added that he had asked Harte about the “citation”, but Harte could not recall his source.
Refusing a knighthood would have been a big deal in 1934, especially from Woodfull, who was a great admirer of the Crown, and referred to England in his speeches as the “Mother Country”.
I also think the offer would have been unlikely politically, coming so soon after Bodyline.
Woodfull did have an outstanding teaching career after 1934, and did accept an OBE, for his contribution to teaching, in 1963, after his retirement. He died, on a golf course, in 1965.
In his last Test series, against Bangladesh, Jason Gillespie averaged 231 with the bat and 11.3 (8 wickets) with the ball, as ratio of averages of 20.5. No one who has taken more than 8 wickets has achieved a higher ratio, although Ramnaresh Sarwan also took 8 wickets and had a ratio of 22.9 (301.0 to 13.1), also against Bangladesh, in 2004.
The highest measurable ratio in any series is 42.9 by Steve Waugh against Sri Lanka in 1995/96. Batting average 362.0, bowling average 8.5 (4 wickets).
Most overs bowled before first wicket in ODis is probably Ata-ur-Rehman of Pakistan in 1993. Exact figures are not available, but. Rehman bowled between 51 and 54 overs for his first wicket, probably closer to 51 than 54. The only other bowler in contention is a team mate of Rehman, Asif Mujtaba, who bowled between 45 and 53 overs; again, probably closer to the 45 than 53.
When Mohammad Yousuf
scored 202 at Lord’s in 2006, the batsman above him in the order (Faisal
Iqbal) and the batsman next in the order (Mohammad Sami) both scored ducks. Yousuf is the only batsman to make a double century in
Adam Voges' 375 runs against the West Indies recently is the most by anyone in a series where he was not dismissed. Previously: 270 runs by Chanderpaul against Bangladesh in 2014.
A little data on appeals in Tests
ML Nkala v New Zealand at Bulawayo in 2000
Danish Kaneria v West Indies, Kingston 2005
MS Panesar v Pakistan at Lord's 2006
The batsmen were PJ Wiseman, S Chanderpaul, and Abdul Razzaq. The Nkala case involved four consecutive balls. The umpires were Harper, Hair and Bucknor.
This is obviously a rather limited survey, and the usual caveats apply. Some appeals have undoubtedly gone unrecorded and many others might be a matter of interpretation.
As a matter of interest, the bowlers with the highest ratio of appeals to wickets are Panesar, Saqlain Mushtaq,Giles and Kaneria. I don't think these names will surprise anyone. The most appeal-prone pace bowler was Zaheer Khan.
How Effective is the (Second) New Ball?
Here are some statistics from the database concerning the effectiveness of the new ball in Tests. The data covers about 280 Tests from 2007 to 2015.
There were 472 innings where the new ball was available. In only 44 was it not taken at all, whereas it was taken in the first five overs (overs 81-85) on 336 occasions. The longest innings without a new ball was 145 overs by West Indies against Australia (439/5) at Bridgetown in 2008; the latest taking of a new ball was 146.1 overs by India at Durban in 2013. There were only 25 cases of no new ball by the 100 over mark.
In innings that lasted at least six overs after the new ball, I compared the number of wickets in the six overs after with the number in the six overs before. There were 405 such innings. I also looked at ‘windows’ of plus or minus four overs and two overs.
A ‘Ratio’ of more than one indicates a benefit to taking the new ball. In the six overs before the new ball, there were wickets in only 87 innings, against 195 innings after the new ball. Overall, there were 2.72 times as many wickets in the six overs after the new ball than in the previous six overs, with even greater benefits with narrower windows.
These numbers suggest that early taking of the new ball is very beneficial, but it would be unwise to read too much into this. The taking of the new ball is not a random event: captains usually choose to do so when wickets are not falling, and they sometimes use part-time bowlers in the overs just before the new ball.
Indeed if you look at the minority of innings where wicket(s) fell in the six overs before a new ball was actually taken (87 cases) the number of wickets falling in the six overs after the new ball is rather reduced – only 63 wickets. In these cases where bowlers are already taking wickets, the new ball has had no beneficial effect.
I also looked at overs numbered 81-86 in all innings of sufficient length, and compared those with the new ball to those without. There were 347 innings with a new ball and 125 without (many of which took the new ball later on). In those without a new ball, the average was 0.68 wickets falling in the six overs, but in innings with a new ball it was only 0.67 wickets. This suggests no benefit to the new ball at all! However, it is not quite so simple, since a significant number of new balls are taken late in the 81-86 over window. If you restrict the comparison to those innings where the new ball was taken in the 81st over” (218 innings), then the return rises to 0.78 wickets in six overs. There is some benefit evident here, but not as much as might be expected.
Overall, I would say that captains do a competent job in choosing when to use the new ball. Mostly. However, the effects of the new ball are sometimes exaggerated, because captains are likely to call for it during a spell without wickets, and particularly by the choice of second-string bowlers just before it becomes available.
Highest averages in a calendar year (Tests beginning in the year in question)
DG Bradman 1932 402.0 (3 inns)
JN Gillespie 2006 231.0 (3)
CP Mead 1921 229.0 (2)
H Sutcliffe 1931 226.0 (2)
MS Sinclair 1999 214.0 (1)
DG Bradman 1946 210.5 (2)
Bradman also made a score of 167 in a Test in 1932, but the Test began in 1931. If the 167 is included in 1932, his average becomes 284.5.
Add this one to the list of unlikely achievements of Jason Gillespie.
Sreeram points out that since Sinclair played only one innings in 1999, that being his 214 on debut, he holds the record for highest average by any batsman in the 20th Century.
Additions to the 1950s database will be suspended shortly. Holidays beckon.
Melbourne 1964: fielding side Pakistan "appealed against the rain" on the final day; successfully, I might add. Australia had been set 166 in 127 minutes, and was 88/2 in 71 minutes, having scored 60 runs in the last six overs, when umpires called a halt. Before the halt, bowler Arif Butt "stopped and then plunged to the turf”, claiming injury. "Shepherd, at the striker's end, looked incredulous and then threw his bat away" (Melbourne Age).
The Pakistanis had earlier been
warned for slow play because they were taking five minutes to bowl an
eight-ball over, (equivalent to 16 six-ball overs an hour). How times have
In the Eden Gardens (Kolkata) Test of 2011/12, India v West Indies, play commenced at 8:30am local time on the third and fourth days, brought forward after time was lost on the second day. This is the earliest hour for play to start in a Test that I have noted.
Prior to the day/night Test at Adelaide Oval, the latest finishing time that I had recorded was 8:06pm at Wellington in 2001/02 (v Bangladesh). In the day/night Test, close of play was at 9:25pm and 9:18 pm on the first two days respectively.
A little discovery to share.
Clyde Walcott scored a century in a session between lunch and tea, Auckland 1951/52. He went from 12 at lunch to 115 at tea, at which point he was out and the declaration was made, with West Indies at 546/6. I believe that this century in a session has not been previously recognised.
I only just found this while sorting through my notes of that series. One source (found in NZ last November, the Wellington Evening Post) gave Walcott's score at lunch and another source had the score at tea, but no source gave both, or mentioned a century in a session.
Latest introduction of Bowlers, by Bowler Number (Tests)
Fall of the Unconquered
Every significant unbeaten innings leaves open the question of how many runs might have been. Statistically, the answer is, on average, similar to the batsman’s batting average, but in specific innings one can never know. If the next innings by the player is any guide, there have been some major unbeaten innings that are followed up by complete failures. The list that follows shows the largest unbeaten innings where the batsman was out to the next ball he faced. Often this was in a different match; in the case of the leader, Bradman, it was in a different series.
Both Tests, if applicable, are listed in the table. Michael Clarke holds the record for largest not out first innings followed by a golden duck in the same Test.
Large unbeaten innings followed by a golden duck
Highest ratio of Teams’ first innings: first-class matches
The following table shows the most one-sided first innings in first-class matches, led by Pakistan Railways 910/6 decl v Dera Ismail Khan 32 at Lahore in 1964/65
In my opinion,
both the leading matches are of dubious first-class status. The first was the
only f-c match ever played by the Dera Ismail Khan
team, and the only f-c match for most of the players.
Peter Nevill took a catch off his first ball in a T20 international. Nevill, of course has played 12 Test matches, so it wasn't his first international overall.
In Tests, it hasn't happened to a keeper, but two fielders have taken catches off the first possible ball in Test cricket. One was PP Ojha in 2009, although he had previously played in ODIs so it wasn't his first international, and the other was AF Lissette at Dunedin in 1955.
Lee Germon and Luke Ronchi, as keepers, took catches off the first ball of their ODI debut, although Ronchi had previously played T20i cricket.
In t20 internationals, Subash Kakurel of Nepal (a keeper) and Saqlain Haider of UAE (a fielder) took catches off the first ball on debut. Haider had previously played ODIs.
Going Online: the Test Matches of the 1950s
I am embarking on an extension of the Test Match Database Online. The intention is to upload most of what I have on Test matches from the 1950s. It will follow the structure of the 1920s to 1940s material that is already available.
I have started with the 1950 England/West Indies series, and I will proceed gradually through the decade.
The 1950 series was an important series, introducing "Calypso Cricket" to England along with a winning West Indies team. Less well recognised is the establishment, on England's part, of the grindingly slow batting adopted by most teams in the 50s, perhaps in response to the permanent institution of five-day Tests in England. Some slow scoring records were set including (at Lord's) the team record for most consecutive balls without scoring.
Check out Washbrook and Simpson taking 125 overs over a partnership of 212 runs at Trent Bridge. That would take a day and a half at modern over rates, but the slowness was masked somewhat by Ramadhin/Valentine et al getting through up to 140 overs per day.
In those days the consensus was that tight spin bowling could not be scored from without risk.
Dismissed by the only ball faced in Test cricket
case, it was the only ball he faced in first-class cricket,
such was the very dubious status of this series.
An oddly hot topic last week was four bowlers in one T20 innings conceding the same number of runs, with three of them having identical overs, runs and wickets. There wasn’t much in the way of precedent in T20 internationals, but here's a T20 match with four bowlers with identical overs and runs conceded
Here's one with three identical overs, runs, and wickets
Four bowlers conceding the same number of runs was a first for T20 internationals, but it has happened in ODIs
Also in Tests
Bowlers taking last two available wickets in consecutive balls in a Test match; thus deprived of a chance for a hat-trick…
More than 50 other bowlers have done it once.
As far as I can tell, none of these bowlers took a wicket with his first ball of the next match, thus claiming a ‘non-hat-trick’, except for the special case of George Lohmann in 1895/96, who finished the first Test with a hat-trick, then took a wicket with his first ball of the second Tests, thus taking four in four.
So it appears
that these ‘non-hat-tricks’ are extremely rare. Hardik
Pandya of India recorded one in the past week, playing T20s against Pakistan
and then Sri Lanka. Apart from Lohmann, there are
no other similar cases at all in my database of Tests, ODIs and T20i. This
data is, of course, not complete, but with about 75% of matches available
(almost five thousand matches), it gives an idea of how rare this must be.
Waqar Younis took three wickets in four balls across two Tests against West Indies and Sri Lanka in 2002. In Ashes Tests, Jason Gillespie took five wickets in seven balls across two Tests against England that were 2 years apart, starting at Perth in 1998/99. He was dropped from the team between the two Tests, but also played against other countries during those two years.
Here is some complete data placing Adam Voges’ record-breaking sequence of runs without dismissal in context. The “RUNS” section is covered in standard record lists, but the “Balls Faced” and “Minutes Batted” records are more complete than you might find elsewhere.
I will post these lists in the “Unusual Records” section.
The following 6-ball overs had shots off the bat for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 (not in that order)
West Indies (535) v England Kingston 1935, 117th over. 046123
West Indies v England Antigua 1986, 37th over, during Viv Richards record century. 136240
England (400) v West Indies, Chester-le-Street 2007, 75th over. 263410
Australia (401) v England Brisbane 2013/14, 53rd over. 263401
There are a couple of cases with 12346 (out of order) but no 0s (two singles).
Most remarkable was Mumbai 1951/52,
when India hit 4, 0, 1, 2, 3, 8 in the 44th over, 1st
There were no overs found containing shots for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.
In the first T20 against Australia, Hardik Pandya bowled five wides in the first over of his international career, three of them before he could bowl a legal ball.
I can't find any previous instances
of five separate wides in any over in T20 internationals. There are a couple
of cases of four wides plus one no ball, by Kemar
Roach and by Dale Steyn, both in 2010.
This appears to be the most productive ‘youth’ game, in these terms, played to date. It is possible that more players will be selected for internationals from these or other teams so the record could change.
For a change of
pace, I thought I’d share what I have decided is one of my favourite cricket
photos. It shows Lawrence Rowe being caught by Ian Chappell off Jeff
Thomson at the MCG on Boxing Day 1975. Those familiar with Australian cricket
photography will not be surprised to learn that it was taken by Patrick
The occasion was the morning of one of the first Boxing Day Tests. Some 85,000 people were present, and in those days the MCG stands were physically smaller than now. Such was the crush of spectators that large numbers were sitting even right behind the sight screen.
As you can see, the photo is on the cover of a Bill Frindall book of scores from that time. While it is not a rare book, it is by no means common and so I hope that no one concerned will mind the reproduction. Unfortunately, my copy is worn by use, and so I have photoshopped out some scratches and abrasions.
Why do I like it? Unlike most cricket photography, it presents a dramatic moment in a Test match much as a spectator experiences it, with a wider field of view than normally seen. Many modern telephoto shots, usually taken from the boundary at ground level, are so extreme that they sometimes struggle to get even the batsman’s face and bat into the same frame.
I like the elevated viewpoint and the composition. The participants are placed neatly, and all eyes are on the ball, directing the viewer’s attention to the main action. The power of Thomson is suggested by his position, still in mid-air even though the ball has reached the slip fielder. The catcher’s position is also dynamic, and shows perfect technique. The packed crowd looming at the top of frame increases the sense of drama.
I also really like the lack of intrusive advertising (although I will admit to photoshopping out one small ad).
I did not go to that match, but I did see, with my brother, the equivalent day in the Sydney Test. Even though we got into the ground more than an hour before the start, there were no seats left in the stands (tickets were not numbered or pre-sold) so we sat on the steps of the Sheridan stand, among 53,000 people; the SCG would never see such a crowd again. Jeff Thomson retired hurt three different batsmen that day; for atmosphere and drama, I have not been to a day’s cricket since that quite matched it.
I believe that only fragments of video of these Tests have survived.
An article on the most extreme Test performances of the last 50 years, combining batting and bowling performances on the same scale. This is an extended version of an article written for Cricket Monthly online. It should be stressed that my list is ‘most extreme’, in a statistical sense, rather than ‘greatest’.
Some notes on the question: in 1975, did Denis Amiss break the ODI record score before Glenn Turner?
On 7 June 1975 the ODI record stood at 116 (David Lloyd in 1974). That day, Amiss scored 137 and Glenn Turner 171*. Both opened the batting in World Cup matches, with simultaneous starting times, one at Lord's the other at Edgbaston.
At lunch (1pm), Amiss was 98 in 35 overs and Turner 82 in 40 overs. Amiss reached 100 off 112 balls. None of the reports available say exactly what happened next, but it is very probable that Amiss would have reached 116 first. The partnership between Amiss and Fletcher was very fast in the latter stages and would have reached a crescendo going from 150 to 230 after lunch. Turner, however, also scored extremely quickly after lunch.
Less certain is whether Amiss still held the record when he was out. Again there are no exact figures, but Amiss was out in the 51st over, while I calculate from the later falls of wicket that Turner was about 142 in 54 overs. However, the over rate was higher in Turner's case, so his 54 overs may well have preceded Amiss' 51 overs. Minutes batted data would be useful here but is lacking.
Amiss, who had scored the first two ODI centuries in 1972 and 1973, before ceding the record to Lloyd, had probably retaken the record, but for less than half an hour, and perhaps only for the time equivalent of five or six overs.
Australia has selected a touring team to New Zealand with all six states represented. Using place of birth, all six states were last represented in a Test at Bangalore 2010. (Players born overseas were not counted.)
MJ Clarke NSW
SR Watson QLD
MG Johnson QLD
NM Hauritz QLD
PR George SA
RT Ponting TAS
TD Paine TAS
BW Hilfenhaus TAS
MJ North VIC
SM Katich WA
MEK Hussey WA
At the Oval in 2005 and various earlier Tests, there were players from all six states, plus the Northern Territory (Damien Martyn). There were all six plus ACT in some Tests when Michael Bevan was playing, including Karachi 1994.
Martyn and Bevan never played together in Tests, and there are no cases with all eight states and territories. However, it has happened in ODIs, including a game in Cairns in 2003, and for good measure at that game there was also Andrew Symonds, born in the U.K.
I don't have
enough data to answer the question in terms of which teams the players were
playing for at the time.
Bowley was an opening batsman in the era of
Hobbs and Sutcliffe. At the age of 39, he filled in for Hobbs in a couple of
Tests against South Africa in 1929.
Jimmy Cook is the father of Stephen Cook, who has just been selected for South Africa after scoring over 11,000 runs.
Does not include players who played no Tests. Alan Jones (36000+ runs) represented England in matches against Rest of the World in 1970, but Test status for these matches was later withdrawn. Jones scored 17,774 runs before the first Rest of the World match.
Most Test runs in an Australian home season
2003/04 RT Ponting (6 Tests) 965
2003/04 ML Hayden (6) 952
2005/06 ML Hayden (7) 949
2005/06 RT Ponting (7) 944
1928/29 WR Hammond (5) 905
2012/13 MJ Clarke (6) 892
1952/53 RN Harvey (5) 834
2015/16 DA Warner (6) 818
1936/37 DG Bradman (5) 810
The off-season Tests in Cairns and Darwin are excluded, but the World XI Test in 2005/06 is included.
In 2003/04, Ponting scored 1034 runs and Hayden 1013 if you include the off-season Tests against Bangladesh.
Homebodies: FS Jackson (20 Tests) and H Ironmonger (14 Tests) played all their Tests at home. For players who eventually played away, the most home Tests from start of career is 13, by several players including WG Grace, DR Doshi and Eoin Morgan. The Most for an Australian is 11 by Merv Hughes.
AJ Traicos played his first and only away Test 23 years after his debut.
After his 1* in the Melbourne ODI, James Faulkner has now hit the winning run nine times in only 35 ODI innings (25.7%). While he is way behind the likes of Dhoni (24 out of 236 innings) in total number of winners, his percentage is higher than anyone in this century who has played more than five innings, and way ahead of any major player.
Dhoni (10.2%) is the leader among players with at least 50 innings.
Data from 1999 onwards only.
The somewhat maligned Mick Lewis, never seen again after the 870-run slogathon in Johannesburg in 2006, appears to be the only player on record to hit the winning run in his only ODI innings (in matches between Test-playing countries). All possibilities before 1999 have been checked.
Winning All Out
While there were fluctuations in the past, the most recent results show a sudden and significant fall-off.
Some questions from Ask Steven:
In the 2nd ODI between NZL and SL, Sri Lanka spinner Jeffry Vandersay conceded 26 runs in his debut over. (3 sixes and 2 fours).
No one has else has conceded 26 or more runs in an over on debut or during the first ODI in which they bowled. Matthew Hayden conceded 18 runs in his only over in ODIs, and I can't find anyone else since then who has conceded more in their first over.
Dean Elgar and Stiaan Van Zyl were the last two South African bowlers when England was bowled out in the 2nd innings of the 1st test and then they opened the innings for Proteas. Is it a unique event in test cricket when both the opening bowlers were the last two bowlers to finish opponents innings?
It's quite rare, when circumstances are exactly as described. At Chittagong in 2009, Imrul Kayes and Tamim Iqbal bowled the last two overs of an innings against Sri Lanka, and then opened the batting immediately afterwards. However they did not bowl the opposition out; there was a declaration. There are one or two similar cases in the last 20 years, where an innings ended in a declaration. There are one or two other occasions where a pair of opening batsmen bowled the last two overs of an innings, but these were last two overs of a drawn match.
At Rawalpindi in 1994, Taylor and Slater bowled the last two overs in Pakistan's second innings and then opened. In this case, Pakistan was bowled out. I can't find any other cases in the last 30 years and 1200 Test matches.
Slater, who took the last wicket in that innings, bowled only 4.1 overs in his whole Test career.
Longest wait to complete an over in a Test: A couple of extreme cases were very recent. Against Bangladesh last year, Dale Steyn waited 4 days to finish an over. However, he never did finish it as the match was washed out. For bowlers who did eventually complete their over, Josh Hazlewood waited three days in the Sydney Test just a couple of weeks ago. Hazlewood's over was interrupted at about 1:40 pm, so he had to wait about 2 hours short of a full three days. Chris Martin also waited until the third day at Johannesburg in 2000, but his over was interrupted at 6:26 pm and restarted at 10:45.
Tony MacGibbon waited 4 days, including a rest day, at Dunedin
in 1955, but when play restarted, England declared, so he didn't complete the
CA Roach WI v Eng, Georgetown, Guyana 1930
DG Bradman Aus v Ind, Adelaide Oval 1947/48
DCS Compton Eng v Pak, Nottingham (Trent Bridge) 1954
NJ Astle NZ v Eng, Christchurch 2001/02
MS Dhoni Ind v Aus, Chennai (Chepauk) 2012/13
BA Stokes SAf v Eng, Cape Town 2015/16
A recent research trip to New Zealand met with some success. A total of eight Test match scores were found that were previously thought lost, one from Christchurch and seven linear scores from Auckland between 1967 and 1981.
I also photographed more than 120 original scores of ODIs form the 1990s. I now have over 300 such scores from prior to the Cricinfo era and hope someday to extend back in time ball-by-ball knowledge of one-dayers.
Re-writing some Slow-Moving Records
Most of the records for slowest scoring Tests date from many years ago, with few recent additions. It seemed to be getting less and less likely that such records would be much added to, what with the modern game dominated by flat-track bullies using super bats on shrunken grounds.
But then the South Africans came along with an innings of 143 in 143.1 overs at the Delhi FSK ground. The only real parallel was India’s 187 off 185 overs at Bridgetown in 1962. The details of the South African innings challenge and sometimes even surpass anything from olden times. Hashim Amla’s 25 off 244 balls (10.25 R/100 b) and AB de Villiers 43 off 297 (14.48 R/100b) rival anything from earlier times.
Here are some other slow innings in the same range, not on Cricinfo:
8.97 Hanif Mohammad (20 off 223 balls) Lord's 1954
11.76 HL Collins (40 off 340) The Oval 1921
12.36 WH Scotton (34 off 275) The Oval 1886.
Bizarre to think that de Villiers started off the year by hitting a century off 31 balls in an ODI, more than twenty times faster than his Delhi marathon.
Fewest runs by individuals in a complete session (minimum two hours, 24 overs)
4 (90 balls) MD Crowe (19*), Colombo 1983 Day 5, Session 2
5 (78 balls) Arshad Khan (9*), Colombo 2000, Day 3, Session 2
6 (113 balls) HM Amla (25), Delhi 2015, Day 4, Session 2
7 (124 balls) AC Bannerman (41), Melbourne 1892, Day 3, Session 2*
8 (~135 balls) B Mitchell (58), Brisbane 1931, Day 5
8 (93 balls) MC Cowdrey (27), Lord’s 1956, Day 4, Session 3
8 CPS Chauhan (79), Kanpur 1979, Day 1, Session 1
8 (99 balls) RC Russell (29*), Johannesburg 1995, Day 5, Session 2
8 (49 balls) GA Gooch (84), The Oval 1988, Day 3, Session 1
*possibly less than 2 hours, but about 45 overs were bowled.
TE Bailey scored 8 in 121 minutes (135 balls) after lunch on Day 5, Leeds 1955. The match ended when he was out.
WR Playle scored 2 runs off 110 balls before lunch, Day 5, Leeds 1958, batting for all but 2 balls of the session.
PI Pocock scored 7 runs in a session of 31 overs but less than 2 hours, Georgetown 1968.
SCJ Broad (6) scored just 2 runs in the first two hours of an extended session, Auckland 2013, Day 5 Session 3. He was out before the end of the session.
scored 7 runs off 68 balls in a session of about 2 hours but only 21 overs at
Chris Tavare scored 18 runs in two sessions (9+9) at Chennai in 1982. The sessions were 90 and 120 minutes.
62 Amla and de Villiers, 3rd wicket, SAf v Ind, Delhi 2015
58 Rabone and Poore, 6th wicket, NZ v SAf Durban 1953/54
58 Hanif Mohammad and Waqar Hassan, 2nd wicket, Pak v Eng Lord’s 1954
53 Edrich and Parkhouse, 5th wicket, Eng v WI Lord’s 1950
51 Younis Khan and Azhar Ali, 2nd wicket, Pak v SL Sharjah 2011
This is very much a “where known” record.
Most balls faced to reach double figures…
These are figures
from the bbb database only (73% of Tests), and I have
not hazarded any guesses for innings outside that set. Putting this together
was occasioned by the discovery of the Turner innings, which included a
stretch of 58 balls on a score of 6; the Auckland 1968/69 Test scoresheets
were among a recent find from a recent research trip to New Zealand. Some of
the other figures are uncertain, due to imprecise placement of byes and leg
byes in the originals. The Moses figure is from an over-by-over analysis
The innings by the ‘dashing’ Compton is a surprise.
I have added two new record categories to the Unusual Records files: slowest teams to reach 50 and 100. In the latter, the Delhi marathon beats all comers, with previous records being clustered around the ‘funereal’ period of the fifties and early sixties.
This is a difficult area to nail down definitively, because many extreme cases tend to come from an era that is poorly represented by detailed data. However, I have done as much checking as possible, and I think there would be few cases that escape notice completely. Estimates of some sort are possible in most cases where scorebooks or other exact data are not available. Here is a part of the tables…
for Engineer: 30-35. Times do not include change of innings or breaks in
play. Dowlin and Surti’s
dismissals were in different sessions; Iddon’s and Trumper’s were on different days, almost 24 hours later
in Trumper’s case, in a heavily rain-affected
Reaching ODI century with a six:
Since 1999, de Villiers has 6, with Gibbs, Kallis and Jayasuriya on 3. Kallis and Jayasuriya could have one or two more before 1999, but there is no bbb data and no mention in Wisden reports.
When Jayasuriya reached 100 off 48 balls in Singapore in 1996 and hit 11 sixes, he reached 100 with a single.
Teams with most captains: in 1996, Pakistan regularly fielded ODI teams with six past or present captains. The first occasion was at Old Trafford.
SInce then, Zimbabwe and Sri Lanka have also fielded six; Sri Lanka did so in the World Cup against Australia this year.
The only team with seven was (technically) a 'World XI' at MCG in 2005. Their opponents, an 'Asian XI' had six, making 13 in all in the match.
Only one maiden was bowled on the first day of the first Test against New Zealand (Australia 416 for 2). When Australia scored 494 in a day against South Africa in 1910, there were no maidens in the first 85 overs, but the day finished with five in 99 overs.
There were no maidens on the first day at Durban in 1938/39 (third Test, not the 10-day Test) in 76 overs. However, they were 8-ball overs, so it was harder to bowl maidens.
There were only 2 maidens in 87.3 overs on the first day of the Kolkata Test of 2011 (India/West Indies).
A question on Ask Steven: In NZ's domestic T20 competition, Canterbury Kings fielder Peter Fulton took 5 outfield catches and their wicketkeeper Cameron Fletcher took 5 dismissals also. Has it happened previously that two fielders have accounted for all 10 dismissals in any innings in any first class format?
I can find a grand total of one previous case that meets the criteria, Griqualand West v Easterns in 2001
In a couple of others, the dismissals were shared between 2 fielders but the keeper took nearly all of them. That's it for all of senior cricket.
At the other end of the scale, here's an innings where 10 catches were taken by 10 different fielders.
A few occasional notes
Victorian opener Travis Dean now has a first-class average. After becoming the first batsman in first-class history to make unbeaten twin centuries on debut, he then scored 84 and 19 when he next batted. When he was out for 84 his first-class average stood at 347.0. This was the highest average on record, at the end of an innings, in all of first-class cricket (previously 325.0 by W Jaffer, and 320.0 by PS Clifford). His average briefly reached 366 just before he was out for 19 in the second innings. The highest (transient) averages ever reached are
392.0 SJE Loxton 1947 (232*, 73, 87)
389.0 HO Rock 1925 (127, 27*, 235)
371.0 Jiwanjot Singh 2012 (213, 158)
366.0 TJ Dean 2015 (154*, 109*, 84, 19)
354.0 W Jaffer 1997 (11, 314*, 29)
The most consecutive ducks in f-c cricket that I can find is six, by several players, including Albert Wright of South Australia in 1905-06, who did so in the first six innings of his career.
VHD Cannings, W Worsley. RR Richards and IM Kidson made six consecutive ducks and 7 consecutive 0s
including one 0 not out.
Mark Robinson of Yorkshire failed to score in 12 consecutive innings, seven of them not out.
Michael Jones wrote today that Pakistan has two current players named Imran Khan. One of them has played 7 Tests, the other 3 T20is... and yet neither has scored a run.
First scoring shot in Tests a six: here's some players, not necessarily a complete list (but mostly complete, I think)
EW Freeman (second ball)
MD Craig (first ball faced)
*not on debut: he failed to score in his first Test.
JH Sinclair apparently cleared the boundary with his first scoring shot in 1896, but at the time the shot only counted for four.
Some early declarations in f-c cricket
4/2 Glamorgan v Worcestershire, Worcester 1935
17/3 Glamorgan v Hampshire, Bournemouth 1981
23/4 Middlesex v Yorkshire, Leeds 1906
26/5 Eagles v Dolphins, Durban 2008/09
21/6 Glamorgan v Notts, Cardiff 1924
24/7 Windward Is v Leeward Is, Roseau, Nov 2015
43/8 Cambridge U v Warwickshire, Cambridge 1953
44/9 Sussex v Gloucestershire, Cheltenham 1968
44/9 Victoria v WA, Melbourne 1975/76
earliest declaration with 7 wickets down was 32/7 – in a Test match, Aus v Eng Brisbane 1950/51.
Test centuries with strike rate greater than a run per ball from the very first ball:
Dismissed on overnight score…
In total, it appears to have happened to Misbah five times, including the two in the current match. Four of those have been in the last 12 months.
I calculate six each for Chris Cairns
and Jacques Kallis. MIsbah
joins DBL Powell, RS Dravid, MA Atherton and GA
Gooch on five.
Martin Snedden scored a three-day duck at Trent Bridge in 1990. He was 0 not out on the first day and again on the second (only 5 overs were bowled), then out for 0 off 29 balls on the third morning.
The highest score by a batsman dismissed on his overnight score is 223 by Bradman in 1930/31. The thousands who turned up to see Bradman continue his double-century were not best pleased. Clyde Walcott (152) was run out as non-striker on the first ball of the second day at Delhi in 1948. Conrad Hunte, on debut, batted right through his first day of Test cricket, but was out for 142 first ball next day (Bridgetown 1958).
A reader on the Ask Steven Facebook page noted that in a recent Australia A v India A match in Chennai, Gurinder Sandhu Took wickets by all available means: bowled, caught, lbw, stumped and hit wicket. In modern cricket, this is a rare event. I appears that it hasn't happened in a Test match, which is a bit of a surprise. In f-c cricket, there are quite a few cases (more than 100), but there are very few in recent times.[It seems that hit wicket was more common long ago than it is now, so fewer bowlers get all five. Stumping is also less common.]
The most recent prior case that I found (and this is a case of all five in one innings) was BGK Walker in this match in 1998.
A Very Long Wait Indeed
Most Balls Bowled Before First Wicket in a Test Innings
Zulfiqar Babar of Pakistan gave this record a good shake in the recent Test in Abu Dhabi. Zulfiqar finished with figures of 72-17-183-1.
*8-ball overs. Italics indicate timeless Tests.
Verity took two wickets in his last over of that innings in 1939, having previously gone wicketless for the equivalent of 73 overs.
Figures that are undetermined include:
>350? DR Doshi Auckland 1981.
? AB Howard Georgetown 1972
>350? SA Durani Kingston 1962
~350 AV Mankad Peshawar 1955
There may be others, although I doubt if there are any undetermined figures that would rank in the top 6.
At Bridgetown in 1962, Lance Gibbs bowled 225 balls before his first wicket, but finished with 8 for 38.
Most balls in an
innings without taking a wicket: 432 By DS Atkinson (72-29-137-0) at
179 M Prabhakar, Lord’s 1990
166 RK Chauhan, Colombo 1997/98
159 I Sharma Edgbaston 2011
156 PR Adams Johannesburg 1996/97
With assistance from Michael Jones and Christopher Hilton’s “The 300 Men” I have compiled a list of known chances (catches and stumpings) for batsmen making Test triple centuries.
The most expensive misses can be listed
324 runs: Hutton 364 (stumping)
323 runs: Hanif 337 (unconfirmed)
316 and 307 runs: Taylor 334*
297 runs: Inzamam 329
297 runs: Gooch 333
293 runs: McCullum 302
The results emphasise an element of luck in making huge scores. Depending on how one treats ‘technical’ chances, only about 21-39% of these batsmen reached 300 without giving a chance. By contrast, about 50% of century-makers reach 100 without any chance (higher if you don’t count technical chances).
Many of these
innings, possibly a majority of them, also included misadventures in running
between wickets and near run outs, but these have not been included. The
usual caveats apply as to what constitutes a chance and what does not:
opinions will vary, particularly across the years. Before television, there
would be extra uncertainty about some chances.
A couple of intriguing (non-first-class) matches from India, unearthed by Sreeram from the trove in Cricket Archive. One was a timeless university match that lasted for eight consecutive days, with a fourth innings of 611. The other was a schools match with a team innings of 1025, a first innings lead of over one thousand and a margin of an innings and 925 runs. The latter match does not have a full score: it would be most interesting to find one.
I did find the close of play scores
in the university match:
Bombay was 268/9 on the first day, out for 343 on the second with Delhi 160/2.
Delhi was out for 241 and Bombay (second innings) 99/2 and 501/5 on the 3rd and 4th days.
Bombay was out for 625, setting Delhi
728 to win. Delhi was 125/1 on the 5th day, 343/4 on the 6th, 567/6 on the
7th day, and out for 611 on the eighth day. The two second innings thus
spanned six days.
Siva Teja has
done some interesting work on the geography of international cricket grounds.
He found two grounds that are virtually antipodean to one another: Whangarei
in New Zealand and Tangier in Morocco, some 20,020 kilometres apart. The
closest two that still exist are the two grounds in Quetta, Pakistan, which
are across the road from one another. Only a handful of internationals have
been played there.
The cities (pop 100,000+) that are
most distant from any international ground are Honolulu, Hawaii (from Whangerei) and Punta Arenas, Chile (from Georgetown,
The official paid attendance on the final day at Adelaide Oval in 1967/68 was 17. India was already 9 down, and only 6 overs were bowled. This is the lowest non-zero attendance figure for a Test day in my database.
I have updated
the “Hot 100” list, the
fastest-scoring and slowest-scoring batsmen in Test cricket. I do this about
once a year. It is a characteristic of most batsmen that their scoring rates
change from year to year much less than their batting averages, so there has
been only slow change in the rankings. The notable movers are Brendon
McCullum, up eight places after a stellar year, and Shakib
al Hasan of Bangladesh.
[Note that, due to a subtle error, Chris Gayle and a couple of others were left off last year’s list.]
The list of
batsmen reaching an ODI century off the last possible ball has been updated (Villers
became only the fifth confirmed case of achieving this with a six: Mohammad Yousuf (twice), Kevin Pietersen
UPDATE UPDATE. Rajneesh Gupta adds the following:
-Javed Miandad did so in a 43-over game (Pak v WI, Georgetown, 1988)
-One more ball was bowled in Zimbabwean innings after Sikandar Raza reached his hundred off a no-ball. Raza lost the strike while taking the single to complete his hundred.
-Ramiz Raja was out obstructing the field on 99 while going for the second run (which would have taken him to his 100) in a 44-over game (Pak v Eng, Karachi, 1987).
I wrote some time
ago that the first batsman to hit sixes off consecutive balls was Warwick
Armstrong at the MCG in 1908. There is, however, an earlier example. JJ Lyons,
at the Oval in 1893, hit five consecutive balls faced for four (two off
Briggs and three off Lockwood. He was out next ball). The last two hits,
although they only counted four at the time, cleared the boundary and would
be regarded as sixes today. The first of these hits “he drove straight to the
roof of the pavilion, the ball bounding over.” That was one mighty hit,
perhaps exceeding 115 metres.
Runner run out in
Tests, where known (Batsman given out named, runner in brackets)
Steve Waugh was
run out only four times in Tests, and it turns out that one of those involved
his runner. Waugh’s partners were run out on 23 occasions.
MacLeod and Jones were run out after being bowled by the no ball, but left the crease not hearing the call, and thinking they were out. Macleod was nearly deaf, and his run out has to be described as “just not cricket, old chap”.
In his 245 in the
Test at Abu Dhabi, Shoaib Malik made scoring shots
for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. I have records of about 60 other cases, but there
are probably a couple of dozen others not recorded. The smallest score to
include all these shots is 39 by EA Brandes for
Zimbabwe at Auckland in 1996. No one has added a 7 to the complete set,
although Andrew Sandham scored both a five and a
seven in his 325 in 1930. However, he hit no sixes.
Since 2000, I have logged the following numbers of slip catches off pace bowlers in Tests...
1st slip 696
2nd slip 707
3rd slip 266
4th slip 26
These are from text descriptions, which are sometimes imprecise.
"Slip" means that the exact
position was not specified in texts or reports. While 2nd slip gets more
catches in the above table, I would expect that a large majority of catches
at "Slip" were actually 1st slip. Some recorders do not mention a
slip number if only one slip is in place.
Most expensive overs with no boundaries or extras…
There was an 8-ball over at SCG 1963/64 that went 0,3,2,3,3,0,2,2 = 15 runs. Peter Pollock bowling, O'Neill and Lawry facing.
There was a 6-ball over at Lord's 1982 that went 3,3,1,3,0,2 = 12 runs. Doshi bowling, Randall and Botham facing.
This is "Where Known". There could be others.
In the recent Colombo Test, Ishant Sharma, in his 65th Test, was the most experienced player in the match, at the young age of 26. This is unusual but not unprecedented. At Karachi 1959, Garry Sobers (25th Test) was the most experienced player at age 22. At Rawalpindi in 1997, Waqar Younis, age 25 in his 45th Test, was the most experienced. Mohammad Ashraful was the most experienced player at age 25 against West Indies in 2009, in Tests where the senior West Indies players had gone on strike and had been replaced.
I don't think there are any others before their 26th birthday, except some special cases in the 1800s which I have excluded because nobody had played more than a handful of Tests. Tendulkar played four Tests at age 26 where he was the most experienced player, and Alan Knott played five.
Batsmen involved in run outs: In Tests, I get 29 for Border (12 times out), 27 for Dravid (13 times out) and Steve Waugh (4 times out: in one of those his runner was run out), 26 for Chanderpaul (4 times out). Ponting was involved in only 20 run outs, but was out himself on 15 of those occasions.
Inzamam was run out only six times in Tests, and saw his partner run out ten times.
In ODIs , there is Mohammad Yousuf (79/ 38 times out), SR Waugh (78/ 27), Inzamam (76/ 40) and Tendulkar (76/ 34), Dravid (74/ 40). Atapattu, run out more than any other batsman (41 times), is down the list a bit on 65/ 41.
Here is some further data on the subject of the follow-on. I also looked at this subject on
17 February 2014 . It occurred to me that a primary factor behind the success of follow-on decisions by captains might be the amount of time left in the match, rather than the runs lead.
So I looked at the outcomes of matches where a follow-on was available, in terms of the stage of the match where the follow-on decision was made. The data in the table covers matches since 1995; Tests involving Bangladesh or Zimbabwe, which have inevitable results, have been excluded.
Win % in follow-on situations, according to session of play
Not surprisingly, the more time is available, the higher the likelihood of winning the match. Leading by over 200 with more than 3 days to play just about guarantees a win, regardless of the decision. However, there are some interesting differences in the outcomes on the third and fourth days.
Enforcing the follow-on: with each successive session, from the beginning of the third day, the Win % declines. The decline is gradual, and enforcing the follow-on on the fourth day still has good positive outcomes.
Not enforcing the follow-on: there are excellent outcomes on the third day, but the success rate plummets on day four.
Bottom line: do not enforce when time is available on the third day, but enforce the follow-on when time is short (day four). Given that follow-on situations arise more frequently on the third day, it is better in general NOT to enforce the follow-on.
Teams not enforcing have a 100% record if the decision comes up before tea on the third day. This is quite remarkable when you think about it; at the very least you would expect the occasional such Test to be washed out, but no trailing team in the last 20 years has managed to recover from this, if asked to bowl again.
There is some surprise in this data, in that it runs counter to the observation that it is easier to win a Test by wickets than runs if time is an issue, because you only need to score one extra run for a wickets win. The tiring of a bowling attack when the follow-on is enforced seems to be a very important factor.
Shane Watson has retired from Tests after a successful if oddly unsatisfying career. One aspect of his play that has received negative comment are claims that Watson overused the DRS system, and asked for too many improbable reviews of LBW decisions. This is something that can be checked with stats.
There have now been more than 150 Tests that used the DRS system. In those Tests, on-field umpires have made 781 lbw decisions (initially) against batsmen. Batsmen have challenged those lbw decisions a remarkable 459 times, 59% of the time. For top order batsmen, the percentage is even higher, about 65%.
Decisions were overturned in the batsman’s favour 126 times, representing 27.5% of the reviews (about 29% for top-order batsmen).
So how does Watson compare to other batsmen? He was given out lbw (initially, on-field) 15 times, which places him third after Alistair Cook (19) and Brendon McCullum (16). Watson challenged eleven of those decisions, so his percentage of 73% is indeed higher than the typical top order batsman. In two out of the eleven challenges, the decision was overturned, or 18%, which is rather lower than the 29% of other similar batsmen. The sample size getting quite small here, so don’t read too much into those last figures.
Nevertheless, this is evidence that Watson did overuse the system, but not radically so. I would say that the data does not strongly support the complaint, given that half of all batsmen will, by definition, have more than average number of challenges, so Watson has plenty of company. One other factor is that Watson was more prone to lbw than most other batsmen, so the review situation arose more often, and so attracted more notice. Watson was also subjected to lbw reviews by bowling teams more often than any other batsman: 17 times, ahead of Ian Trott on 16. Only two of these resulted in overturns, and Watson’s dismissal.
Watson has not been the leading challenger of decisions: Misbah-ul-Haq has challenged 13 out of 14 decisions against him, with three overturns. Curiously, Alistair Cook has challenged only seven out of 19 lbw decisions against him, with two overturns.
Top Order Batsmen Making their Maiden First-Class Century in a Test match.
It has happened occasionally with Zimbabwe players like GW Flower, BRM Taylor and AG Cremer, and some Bangladeshis.
But in the last 30 years I daresay the most prominent player who meets the criteria is (believe it or not) Kumar Sangakkara. Sangakkara's maiden first-class century came in his 10th Test match; it was his 50th first-class match and 76th innings. Remarkable. He played 103 innings before making a first-class century that was not in a Test match, and 140 innings before doing so in Sri Lanka.
Perhaps 20 players from the last 30 years also fit. Most of them ore not particularly prominent, but Salman Butt had a highest score of 60 and only one fc half-century (average 13.7) when he opened for Pakistan v Bangladesh in 2003.
David Warner, of course, played for Australia before he played first-class cricket, but that was in T20. He had a few fc centuries by the time he played Tests.
Here’s something I noticed while reading some reports of Tests in 1888. It is relevant to the little mystery why most countries refer to a cricket score as, say, 100 for 4 (runs-first), whereas in Australia it is 4 for 100 (wickets-first).
I appears that in the 19th Century, reports in England generally used the wickets-first style (at least in The Times). By 1907-1912, this style had changed in most cases to the runs-first style. In between, in 1902, both forms seem to have been in use. In one 1902 report (third Test, first day), both styles are used in the same paragraph.
It would appear that the Australian style is the retained original (or archaic) style, and that the English moved away from it in the early 20th Century. The original style is still seen in bowling figures, which are still given wickets-first everywhere, as are falls of wicket on standard scorecards.
I have records of about 80 cases of bowlers bowling consecutive wides, but Mitchell Starc at Trent Bridge is the first to do it in both innings of one Test. Guy Whittall did it twice in the same innings against India at Harare in 2001.
Mohsin Kamal bowled three consecutive wides to Mark Taylor at Rawalpindi in 1994, as did RJ Peterson to Alex Doolan at Centurion in 2014, and MB Owens of New Zealand at Moratuwa in 1992/93.
This data covers only about 80% of Tests.
In another remarkable Test, Sri Lanka defeated India at Galle even though they were five wickets down and still trailing in the third innings of the match. Apart from the immortal Headingley 1981 Test, when England were still behind with seven down, I found only three other teams that were behind with five down in the third innings and who went on to win the match: Colombo 92, Hamilton 93 and Sydney 94. These Tests are oddly clustered together but I don't think there are others.
None of these other three were as far behind with five down as Sri Lanka in the recent match.
Here are a couple of recent published articles. From the excellent Between Wickets journal, Winter 2015.
Cricket Fatalities Some shocking historical statistics on the number of people killed playing cricket. This is a subject covered previously in the blog, with some extra information.
Jackschon, Fergie and the Genesis of Advanced Cricket Scoring. The story of the pioneers of advanced scoring techniques, which are so ubiquitous in the modern game. (edited version).
If You Thought You had Never Seen Such a Collapse…
You were right. Australia’s loss of five wickets in the first 4.1 overs of the Trent Bridge Test was unprecedented, not only on the first morning of a Test match, but in any Test innings. The 25 balls bowled beat the old mark of 28 balls by India (6 runs, 5 wickets) at The Oval in 1952. Even Bangladesh’s worst – 29 balls at Harare in 2004 – was no match.
Earliest Fall of Wickets in Test Innings
* 4-ball overs
Australia was all out before lunch for 60, with just 39 runs coming off the bat. Those 39 runs represents the worst showing by Australia’s batsmen since 1902, bowled out for 36 (33 off the bat) on an unplayable pitch at Edgbaston.
Stuart Broad (8 for 15) made a mess of all previous records for bowling on the first morning of a Test. I have updated various sections of the “Unusual Records” that were affected by this assault. Note that most of the other entries of this type involved at least some tail-end batsmen. The most astonishing aspect of Broad’s demolition is that it involved so many top order batsmen.
Incidentally, England’s declaration before lunch on the second day is unprecedented for a team batting second, with the exception of one Zimbabwe Test.
Reaching 100 on the last possible ball of a (full length) ODI innings (UPDATED)
*reached century with a six.
possibly one or two others in early ODIs that have been overlooked, but
unlikely. Pietersen is the only one to do it in the
second innings; not surprisingly, he hit the winning runs with the same ball.
McMillan and Williamson benefited from a second crack at the last ball
because the bowler bowled a no ball.
At Wellington in 2001/02 (NZ v Bangladesh), play on the fourth day did not end until 8:06 pm local time. This is the latest stumps time that I have recorded for a Test match day. Play had been washed out on the previous day, and did not start until 1:00 pm on the day in question. Even so, 88 overs were bowled in the day.
There was a period in the late 90 and
early 2000s when day lengths were very flexible when making up lost time, and
days could run up to 7.5 hours play or even more. Eventually (by 2005) this
was limited to a maximum 7 hours – or 6.5 hours, if no time had been lost –
with maximum 30 minutes extension at start and finish in most countries. I
think that play in England never starts early, but can extend 60 minutes at
the end of the day to make up lost time.
The most balls bowled between wickets by an individual bowler in Tests is 952 balls by Maurice Tate spread over two series in 1929.
A Queensland medium pacer named Alfred Ryan went wicketless for more than 1112 balls in fc cricket in 1936. Can't say the exact number, or if it is the record, but it seems to be the only case of more than a thousand if you just look at complete innings.
A search for most boundaries conceded in a Test produced an interesting result. Brett Lee conceded 44 boundaries at the SCG in 2003/04. Next highest is 42 by Jason Krezja on debut at Nagpur, John Gleeson at Port Elizabeth in 1970, and Tim Southee at Lord's just last May.
Lee also has most in an innings with 35, equal with Bill O'Reilly at Old Trafford in 1934.
There are some other possible candidates for which there is no data, but most of the 'most likely' cases have been covered. That includes cases like OC Scott in 1930, Fleetwood-Smith in 1938, and Fazal Mahmood & Khan Mohammad in 1958, all of whom conceded fewer boundaries than the above. Sri Lanka’s 952 in 1997 is also covered.
New Membership of the 400 Club
I know this has been talked about elsewhere, but here is a simple table of the bowlers who have reached 400 wickets in Tests. There are various ways of comparing a bowler’s importance. Wickets per match (the normal metric in this case) is one, but runs conceded and balls bowled also provide interesting comparison.
Stats for the 400th Wicket
Figures as they stood at the taking of the 400th wicket. (Hadlee’s runs conceded is not precise, and may be ± 5 or 10.) Number of years figures are rounded.
The increasing frequency of Test matches is reflected in Hadlee’s third position in num